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Bologna is an important agricultural, industrial, financial and transport hub, where many large mechanical, electronic and food companies have their headquarters as well as one of the largest permanent trade fairs in Europe. According to the most recent data gathered by the European Regional Economic Growth Index (E-REGI) of 2009, Bologna is the first Italian city and the 47th European city in terms of its economic growth rate. [10] As a consequence, Bologna is also one of the wealthiest cities in Italy, often ranking as one of the top cities in terms of quality of life in the country: in 2011 it ranked 1st out of 107 Italian cities. [11]

The roots of Dada lie in pre-war avant-garde. The term anti-art , a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 to characterize works which challenge accepted definitions of art. [8] Cubism and the development of collage and abstract art would inform the movement's detachment from the constraints of reality and convention. The work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German Expressionists would influence Dada's rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning. [9] [10] Works such as Ubu Roi (1896) by Alfred Jarry , and the ballet Parade (1916–17) by Erik Satie would also be characterized as proto-Dadaist works. [11] The Dada movement's principles were first collected in Hugo Ball 's Dada Manifesto in 1916.


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